The results of the 2007 population census show that the total population of Swaziland is 1 018 449. About 77% of the population lives in the rural areas and 23% live in cities and towns. Women of childbearing age (15-49 years) make up 26% of the population while all females account for 53%. An estimated 4.6% of the population is 60 years of age and above. The Demographic and Health Survey (2006-2007) show that about 60% of the population is aged below 30 years of which about 40% are children under the age of 15 years.
Life expectancy at birth increased from 44 years in 1966 to 58.8 years in 1997. As a result of HIV and AIDS it dropped to 32.0 in 2011. HIV prevalence is 26%, the highest in the world, and TB prevalence is 707/100,000, also one of the highest in the world.
Mortality rates are relatively high for the Swaziland population. The Swaziland Annual Health Statistics Report (2011) indicates that infant mortality rate is 100.5 deaths per 1,000 live births, and under-five mortality rate is 146.3 deaths per 1,000 live births; seventy percent (70%) of all child deaths were reported to have taken place during the first year of life. The crude death rate is 17.6 per 1,000.
However, According to PRSAP (2006), 69% of the country’s population is living below the poverty line.
The country’s labour force is estimated to grow at an average annual rate of 2.9 % whilst the growth in employment opportunities for both public and private sectors is 1.7 %. The private sector accounts for 69 % and the public sector 31 % of total formal employment. The informal sector has consequently become the key sector absorbing most of the school leavers, unskilled and disadvantaged members of the Swaziland society.